Pepper is a spice obtained from the berries of various species of pepper plants, plants of the family Piperaceae. Only the fruit of Piper nigrum, Piper cubeba and Piper longum are legally entitled to the appellation of pepper.

The species Piper nigrum products, depending on the stage of harvest and the type of preparation, green pepper, white pepper or black pepper.

Green pepper is obtained by conserving wetland immature berries, white pepper consists of ripe berries free from the pericarp.

Black pepper is made from almost matured berries, fermented and the dried
Red pepper is the pepper berry at full maturity

Gray pepper is ground black pepper, which is why we only found it dust. This is the mix of black pericarp and white heart that gives this particular gray.

World production of pepper is 366 511 tonnes in 2003. Vietnam is the largest producer with 90 000 tonnes. Then follow: Indonesia 67 000 tonnes, Brazil 63 000 tonnes, India 51 000 tonnes, Malaysia 32 000 tonnes, China 21 000 tonnes.
Annual production in Madagascar is about 2 000 tonnes.

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